BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES

 

 

Code

Title

Credits

 

 

 

Core Courses

1st Semester

AQ 120

Ecology of Lakes and Rivers

12

AQ 121

Introduction to Fisheries Science and Technology

8

ZL 121

Invertebrate Zoology

8

MC 100

Fundamentals of Microbiology

12

DS 101

Perspectives of Development I

8

BL 111

Introductory Cell Biology and Genetics

12

 

 

60

 

 

 

Core Courses

2nd Semester

AQ 122

Introduction to Aquaculture

8

AQ 123

Swimming and Survival in Water

-

AQ 124

Marine Benthic Ecology

8

MT 111

Mathematics for Biological and Chemical Sciences

8

ZL 122

Chordate Zoology

8

CH 113

Chemistry for Life Sciences Students

12

DS 102

Perspectives of Development II

8

 

 

52

Optional Courses

1stSEM

IS 131

Introduction to Informatics and Microcomputer

12

Optional Courses

2ndSEM

WS 101

Ecology and Utilization of Natural Resources

8

CL 107

Communication Skills for Science Students

12

 

 

20

 

 

Table 5. Second Year

 

 

Proposed Course Mapping

 

Code

Title

Credits

 

 

Core Courses

1st Semester

AQ 200

Practical Training I

8

AQ 231

Marine Biogeochemistry

8

AQ 234

Mangrove, Seagrass and Seaweed Ecology

12

AQ 236

Fish Taxonomy and Biology

12

AQ 232

Fish Population Dynamics and Stock Assessment

12

EV 200

Environmental Science I

8

 

 

60

 

Core Courses

2nd Semester

AQ 224

Plankton Systematics and Ecology

12

AQ 233

Physical and Geological Processes in the Oceans

8

AQ 235

Coral Reef Ecosystem

8

AQ 221

Estuarine and Wetland Ecology

12

BL 234

Biostatistics I

8

AQ 237

Fish Ecology

8

 

 

56

Optional Courses

1stSEM

AQ 239

Biology and Ecology of Shellfish

8

 

SC 215

Scientific Methods

8

 

 

 

16

Optional Courses

2ndSEM

GY 245

Remote Sensing and GIS

8

 

 

Table 6. Third Year

 

Proposed Course Mapping

 

Code

Title

Credits

 

 

Core Courses

1st Semester

AQ 300

Practical Training II

8

AQ 307

Law of the Sea and Inland Waters

8

AQ 340

Genetics, Breeding and Seed Production

12

AQ 339

Aquaculture Production Systems

12

AQ 347

Aquabusiness

8

AQ 348

Aquatic Pollution and Control

8

 

 

56

 

Core Courses

2nd Semester

AQ 320

Watershed Management

8

AQ 345

Diseases in Fish

8

AQ 341

Fish Nutrition and Feed Production

8

AQ 342

Fisheries Resource Management

8

AQ 344

Fisheries Extension Education

8

AQ 346

Fisheries Economics

8

AQ 399

Research Project

8

 

 

56

Optional Courses

1stSEM

AQ 349

Advanced Oceanography

12

AQ 343

Fish Processing Technology

12

BL 314

Biostatistics II

8

 

 

28

Optional Courses

2ndSEM

AQ 331

Contemporary Topics in World Fisheries

8

WS 311

Tourism and Recreational Management

8

MC 208

Aquatic Microbiology

12

 

 

 

28

 


 

 

Appendix 1: Description of Courses and Course Contents for the Proposed B.Sc. Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries (an asterisk (*) indicates a new course)

 

FIRST YEAR

 

AQ 120: Ecology of Lakes and Rivers (12 credits)*

Course Description: The course provides an overview of ecological and biotic functions of inland waters. It covers both physical and chemical properties of lakes and rivers and their productivity.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes:At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Distinguish different types of inland water ecosystems, their aquatic flora and fauna.

         Describe factors affecting their abundance, distribution and production.

 

Course content:General Introduction: Hydrological cycle, general water properties supporting ecological and biotic functions, types of inland water systems (lentic and lotic), distribution of inland water systems and abundance of water (worldwide and country wide), origin/formation of lakes and rivers (focus on Tanzanian water bodies).

Lake ecology: Introduction to types of lakes and their formation. Characterisation of major lakes in East Africa. Description of important physical and chemical features in lake systems: wind, temperature, light and chemistry. Occurrence and distribution of lentic system biota: micro-organisms, flora (aquatic macrophytes, algae) and fauna (fishes and invertebrates in Tanzanian lake systems). Community patterns (local species richness, succession patterns and latitudinal patterns). Productivity, foodwebs and trophic relationships: role of primary producers, benthic invertebrates and fishes in the food chain. Major impacts to lake systems: eutrophication, acidification and invasive species.

River and stream ecology: Unique features of rivers and streams (unidirectional flow, river continuity, spatial and temporal heterogeneity (microhabitats) and high abiotic and biotic variability). Description and practical measurements of important physical and chemical features in river systems: hydrological (discharge), hydraulics (flow, depth, substrate), order, temperature, light and chemistry parameters. Biotic features: Micro-organisms (bacteria, diatoms, cyanobacteria), flora (aquatic macrophytes, algae) and fauna (fishes and invertebrates). Occurrence and distribution of biotic communities in Tanzanian river systems and their potential for application as water quality and ecological indicators in river systems. Community patterns (diversity, species richness, resource partitioning, river continuum concept, biotic indices based on changes in community patterns). Productivity, foodwebs and trophic relationships: energy sources, role of invertebrates and fishes in the trophic interactions. Major impacts to river systems: pollution, flow modification, riparian vegetation encroachment and invasive species invasion.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and Final examination 60%.

 

References:

  1. Allan, J.D. and Castillo, M.M. 2007. Stream Ecology: Structure and Function of Running Waters. Springer Verlag.
  2. David, D. 2008. Tropical Stream Ecology. Elservier Inc.
  3. Gooderham, J. and Tsyrlin, E. 2002. The Waterbug Book: A guide to the freshwater macroinvertebrates of temperate Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
  4. Hauer R and Lambert GA. (2007). Methods in stream Ecology. 2nd Ed. Academic Press.
  5. Lampert, W. and Sommer, U. 2007. Limnoecology: The ecology of Lakes and Streams. Oxford University Press.
  6. Moss, B. 1998. Ecology of Fresh Waters. Fishing News Books (Blackwell Science Ltd).
  7. Suthers, I.M. and Rissik, D. 2009. Plankton: A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
  8. Wood, P.J., Hannah, D.M. and Sadler, J.P. 2008. Hydroecology and Ecohydrology: Past Present and Future. Wiley.

 

 

AQ 121: Introduction to Fisheries Science and Technology (8 credits)*

Course Description: The course introduces students to fisheries sciences, the importance of fisheries and the description of gears used in their exploitation.

 

Expected Learning outcome:At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Describe basic aspects of fisheries

         Distinguish the different categories of fisheries

         Explain the basic principles of fishing gear design.

         Describe the various fishing gear.

 

Course content: Fisheries Science. Importance of fisheries. Fish capture and culture. Categories of capture fisheries, Fishery exploited species (fish, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, seaweed, etc). Targeted species and bycatch. Trends in world capture fisheries (Tuna, Peruvian anchoveta, Cod fisheries, Shellfish, marine mammals, etc). Trends in national fisheries production (marine (e.g. prawns), lakes (e.g. Nile perch), rivers, and reservoirs).

Fishing Technology: Evolution of fishing methods and gears. Description of various fishing gears. Classification of fishing gear and fishing methods: Traps, lines, nets, seines, trawls, dredges, electrofishing, fish pumps, straddling. Basic principles of fishing gear design (Hanging coefficient, assembling, seaming, mounting, calculation of webbing requirements, shaping by baiting, creasing and tailoring, cutting ratio calculations). Selectivity of fishing gears. Fishing accessories. Fishing gear maintenance.

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and Final examination 60%.

 

References:

  1. Garner, J. 1989. How to Make and Set Nets: The Technology of Netting. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.
  2. Hart, P.J.B. and J. Reynolds. 2002. Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. (2 Volume Set). Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

3.      King, M. 2007. Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management. Second Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

  1. Klust, G. 1989. Netting Materials for Fishing Gear. Second Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.
  2. Moore, G. and Jennings, S. 2000. Commercial Fishing. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.
  3. Nedelec, C. 1989. FAO Catalogue of Small Scale Fishing Gears. Second Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.
  4. Synes, D. 1997. Property Rights and Regulatory Systems for Fisheries. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

 

 

AQ 122: Introduction to Aquaculture (8 credits)*

Course Description:The course focuses on aquaculture and capture fisheries production. It covers developments that have taken place within aquaculture, the structures and technology commonly used for commonly cultured species.

 

Expected Learning Outcome: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Describe the basic concepts and different types of aquaculture.

         Select best sites and species for aquaculture.

         Describe the principle behind harvesting, handling and transportation of live aquaculture products.

         Explain the challenges of aquaculture development in Tanzania.

 

Course content: Introduction: Aquaculture vis a vis agriculture. Aquaculture and capture fisheries production. The blue revolution. Challenges of aquaculture developmentin Tanzania. Diversity of aquaculture. Stock enhancement. New developments in aquaculture. Introduction to aquaculture systems: Structures used for aquaculture; intensity of aquaculture. Static, open, semi-closed and recirculating (closed) systems. Plumbing and pumps. Site selection and development. Concepts of stocking density and carrying capacity. Harvesting, handling and transportation of live aquaculture products. Safety in aquaculture practices. Selecting species for culture. Developing a new cultured species. Impacts of aquaculture on the environment.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Beveridge, M.C.M. 1996.Cage Aquaculture. Second edition. Fishing News Books, Oxford.

2.      Boyd, C.E. 1992. Water Quality Management for Pond Fish Culture. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

3.      Little, D. and Muir, J. 1987. A Guide to Integrated Warm Water Aquaculture. Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling, Scotland.

4.      Lucas, J.S. and Southgate, P.C. (Editors). 2012. Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Second edition. Wiley-Blackwell, UK.

5.      Tidwell, J.H. (Editor). 2012. Aquaculture Production Systems. Wiley-Blackwell, UK.

 

 

AQ 123: Swimming and survival in water*

Course Description: This course provides skills in swimming and survival in water. It also covers underwater swimming and surface dives.

 

Expected Learning Outcome: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         demonstrate knowledge in water survival skills

         swim and use personal floatation devices

         demonstrate skills in underwater swimming and skin dives.

 

Course content: Water survival skills: swimming skills (water familiarity, buoyancy and floating technique, breath control), Types of personal floatation devices and use, Treading water, Methods of staying afloat (back float, vertical float and prone float).Types of strokes: crawl stroke, breast stroke, back stroke, and side stroke. Underwater swimming and surface dives; use of mask, fins and snorkel. Stress awareness, drowning (causes and prevention) and rescuing.

 

Delivery: 90 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Pass or Fail.

 

References:

1.      AUSTSWIM. 2001. Teaching Swimming and Water Safety. Human Kinetics Publishers.

2.      Hardy, C. 1990. Swimming for Heath. Headway, Hodder.

3.      Thomas, D.G. (1989). Swimming: Steps to Success. Leisure Press, Champaign, Illinois.

4.      YMCA. 1999. Teaching Swimming Fundamentals. Human Kinetic Publishers.

5.      YMCA. 1999. The Youth and Adult Aquatic Program Manual. Human Kinetic Publishers.

 

AQ 124: Marine Benthic Ecology (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides knowledge in marine environment, the major benthic zones and their biotopes. It also covers the type of shores their characteristic benthic communities and their trophic relationships.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Characterize the benthic environment

         Explain factors influencing distributions of organisms

         Describe trophic relationships and human impact on the benthic environment.

 

Course content: Introduction to marine environment. Major benthic zones and their characteristic biotopes (mangrove swamps, algal beds, seagrass and coral reefs). Supra-littoral zone, littoral zone, sub-littoral zone, deep sea zone. Types of shores and their characteristic benthic communities (phytobenthos and zoobenthos). Important abiotic factors and adaptations in different systems (temperature, dissolved gases, salinity, atmospheric exposure). Trophic relationships and productivity of the benthos. Bentho-pelagic coupling. Role of benthos in fisheries. Human impacts on benthic environment: fishing/gleaning, mariculture, tourism, waste disposal, shipping and other activities.

 

Delivery: 15 lectures and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Bradfield, A.E. 1978. Life in Sandy Shores. Studies in Biology. No. 89. Edward Arnold. London.

2.      Giere, O. 2009. Meiobenthology. The Microscopic Fauna in Aquatic Sediments. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

3.      Kennish, M.J. (Editor), 1998. Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities. CRS Press, USA.

4.      Lewis, J. H. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. English University Press.

5.      Newell, R.C. 1979. Biology of Intertidal Animals. Faversham, Kent, UK.

 

ZL 121: Invertebrate Zoology (8 credits)

Expected Learning Outcome: To introduce students to basic microscopy, principles of animal classification, form and function, and evolutionary relationships among invertebrate phyla.

 

Course content: Classification of animals: basic structure and functional features of the Protozoa, Porifera, Radiata, Acoeloata, Pseudo-coelomata. Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata. Evolutionary relationships among invertebrate phyla.

 

Delivery: 15 lectures hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.                  Barrington, E.J.W. 1974 Invertebrate Structure and Function. ELBS.

2.                  Brusca, R.C. and Brusca, G.J.1990 Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates Inc.

3.                  Marshall, A.J. and Williams, W.D.1974 Textbook of Zoology:Invertebrates. Macmillan.

4.                  Pechenik, J.A. 1999. Biology of Invertebrates (4th Edition). MacGraw-Hill Higher Education Publishing Co.

5.                  Ruppert, E.E. and Barnes, R.D.1994 Invertebrate Zoology. SaundersCollege

6.                  Wallace, R.L. and Walter, K.T.1996. Invertebrate Zoology: A Laboratory Manual. Prentice Hall Incorporated.

 

ZL 122: Chordate Zoology (8 credits)

Objectives: The Chordates include not only the vertebrates, but also a number of other less familiar forms.The course serves an introduction to all of these, in which their evolution and classification is emphasized.Basic chordate biology is presented, followed by an introduction to the evolution and classification of the Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. This course provides students with a foundation sufficient for the basis of later courses in structure, function and evolution of the vertebrates.

 

Course content: The chordate plan, its establishment and elaboration as exemplified by the lower chordates. Adaptability of the plan to the higher chordates.A study of the evolution of the vertebrate classes, Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia, emphasising the major structural and functional features of eachclass.

 

Delivery: 15 lectures hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

 

 

Reference:

1.         Young, J.Z.1981. The Life of Vertebrates (3rd Ed). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

 

CH 113: Chemistry for Life Sciences Students (12 credits)

 

Objective: To provide a fundamental understanding of chemical principles of importance to life science students.

 

Course content: Stoichiometry and mole concept. Atomic structure and chemical bonding. Ionic equilibria including pH and buffer solutions, acid-base titration and solubility equilibrium. Nuclear radiation and its effects on matter.The colloidal state. Principle of chemical reactivity. Important functional groups in organic molecules. Introduction to stereochemistry. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein and nucleic acids. Enzymes. Bioenergetics. Practical based on the above topics.

 

Delivery: 40 lecture hours and 6 sessions of 3-hours practical classes.

Assessment: Tests 25%, practicals 15%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.                  Petrucci, R.H. 1997. General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications 7th Ed. Prentice-Hall.

2.                  Theodore, L.B. and LeMay, H.E. Jr. 1977. Chemistry: The central science, Prentice-Hall.

3.                  Zumdahl, S.S. 1995. Chemical Principles. 2nd Ed. Heath & Company.

 

MC 100: Fundamentals of Microbiology (12 credits)

Objectives: To introduce students to basic concepts of microbiology and make them appreciate the presence, diversity and the role of microorganisms in nature and to equip students with handling techniques including isolation, culturing and identification of microorganisms.

 

Course content: Brief history of microbiology as a science. The cell and its structures: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes. Brief survey of the diversity of prokaryotes and eukaryotic microorganisms. Classification of prokaryote. Growth of microorganisms: in batch and continuous cultures. The microbe and its environment. Isolation, culture and identification of microorganisms, microbial symbiosis, participation of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycles of element.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.         Mardigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. (2000) Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 9th Edition. Prentice Hill International, Inc.

2.         Schlegel, H.G. 1990. General microbiology. 6th Edition. Cambrige University Press, pp587.

3.         Talaro, K, and Talaro, A.1993. Foundation in Microbiology. WCB Publishers.

 

BL 111: Introductory Cell Biology and Genetics (12 credits)

Expected learning outcomes:

By the end of the course students should be able to:

Explain the cell concept

Describe cellular structure, and state functions of various cell organelles

Explain mechanisms of transmitting characters in their varied states from one generation to the next

Explain Sex determination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, blood group genetics

Explain concepts of quantitative genetics and Cytoplasmic genetic systems.


Course content: The cell concept; Structure and organization of living matter: atoms, molecules in cells, proteins and enzymes, nucleic acids, lipids and proteins; Structure and functions of cell organelles and membranes; Meiosis, mitosis and gametogenesis; Cell differentiation and specialization; Mendelian segregation. Independent assortment and polyhybrid inheritance. Dominance relations. Gene interactions and modification of Mendelian ration. Autosomal linkage, sex-linkage and sex-related inheritance. Gene mapping in diploids. Sex determination in prokaryotes, plants and animals. Pseudoallelism, multiple allelism and blood group genetics. Aspects of quantitative genetics. Cytoplasmic genetic systems.


Delivery: 30 lecture hours + 45 hours of practical.

Assessment: Course work assessment will be 40% and the final examination 60%.


References:

1.      Snustad D.P and Simmons M.J 2003. Principles of Genetics. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York

2.      Karp G. 2002. Cell and Molecular Biology; Concepts and Experiments 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York.

3.      Gardner E. and Snustadt P. 1994. Principles of Genetics (6th Ed.). John Wiley

4.      Suzuki D.T., A.J.F. Griffiths and R.C. Lewontin 1998 Introduction to Genetic Analysis (4th Ed.) W.H. Freeman, New York

5.      Burns, G.W. 1989. The Science of Genetics (4th Ed.) Collier-MacMillan, London.

6.      Russel P.J. 1998 Genetics (3rad Ed). Harper & Collins Publishers

 

DS 101: Perspectives of Development I (8 credits)

 

Objectives: To expose students to various theoretical perspectives of development in order to enable them develop a critical framework for analyzing processes of change and development and to enable students understand and analyze processes of development in the context of gender relations.

 

Course content: Theories of Development. Political economy and Development. Gender and Development. State and Political Development. Youth, Unemployment and Poverty.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 15 seminar hours.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Agarwala, A. and Sighn, S. (Editors.), 1976. The Economics of Underdevelopment. Oxford University Press.New York.

2.      Apter, D.E., 1990. Rethinking development: Modernization dependence and Post-Modern Politics. Sage Publishers. London:

3.      Blomstrom, M. and Hattne, B. 1987. Development theory in transition: The dependency debate and Beyond. Zed Press, London.

 

DS 102: Perspectives of Development II (8 credits)

Objectives: To provide students with an understanding of development processes and problems, and to impart to them problem solving skills and to enable students understand and analyze the dynamics of Tanzania's development plans/strategies and implementation in selected sectors from colonial period to post-independence era.

 

Course content: Agricultural transformation and rural development. Industry, trade and development. Science and technology development. Social services and development: education, health and culture. Population, urbanization and environment. Development planning, entrepreneurship and facilitation.


Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 15 seminar hours

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Bauer, P.T. 1976. Dissent on Development, London Weidenfeld and Nicolson

2.      Chole, E., W. Mlay and Oyungi, W. (Editors), 1990. The crisis of Development strategies in Eastern Africa, Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

3.      Frank, A. 1981. Crisis in the third World. HM Publishers. New York.

 

WS 101: Ecology and Utilization of Natural Resources (8 credits)

Objectives: To introduce students to the development of human societies and production relations, emphasis on the role of natural resources in human development and the impact of human on biodiversity.

 

Course content: Evolution of human societies. Food systems including pastoralism, agriculture, fishing and hunting. Natural resources and their values: renewable and non-renewable resources. Wildlife, forestry and aquatic resources: status and conservation in the world, Africa and Tanzania. Population growth and impact of human exploitation on biological diversity and environment including carbon and climate change.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.    Newman, E.I. 1993. Applied Ecology. Blackwell Science. Oxford

2.    Primack, I.G. 1993. Essentials of conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, Mass

3.    Simmons, I.G. 1981. The ecology of Natural Resources. Edward Arnold Publishers. London.

 

IS 131: Introduction to Informatics and Microcomputers (12 credits)

Objectives: To provide a broad perspective of informatics and Microcomputers as a tool for processing. Students are expected to gain interaction with micro-computer system, know how the applications programs are taken care of by the OS, to summarize common network structures, have experience with DOS and Windows 95 during the course development.

 

Course content: Main components of a microcomputer: Devices and their logical configurations (including CPU, printers, disk drives, keyboards, monitors, etc). Comparative aspects of micro and mainframe, workstations and micro, minicomputers and microcomputers. Functions and types of operating systems (MS-DOS, UNIX/LINUX, XENIX, etc) The Disk operating system (DOS and its functions, Windows 95 and its applications). Microcomputer applications. Word processors. Spreadsheets. To make a simple spreadsheet (e.g. by using 'Excel'), do some simple operations, saving and printing the sheet. Databases: (e.g. by using Access): open an existing document, creating some queries, save and print some contents of a database.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.                  Capron, H.L. 1997. Essentials of computing. Addison-Wesley Publication Company.

2.                  Marilya, M. and R. Baber 1997. Computers in your future. MacMillan Publishing. Indianapolis, IN.

 

 

SECOND YEAR

 

AQ 200: Practical Training I (8 credits)

Objective: At the end of the course a student should appreciate and be able to apply skills and knowledge gained during the practical training period.

 

Course content: An eight-week field period immediately after the second semester of first year. Structured, practical training in the government agencies and other areas utilizing fisheries and dealing with aquatic resources and conservation, food, or other related applied sciences. Priority is given to work experience as assigned by the academic supervisor. Experiences are supervised and evaluated by local field supervisor. Student's logbook of their daily activities and written reports required.

 

Delivery: 8 weeks of field attachment.

Assessment: Final assessment will be based on employer's evaluation (10%), logbook (20%), final report (60%) and student presentation (10%).

 

AQ 221: Estuarine and Wetland Ecology (8 credits)

 

Objectives: At the end of the course, a student should be able to understand the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of estuarine environments, wetlands and their management.

 

Course content: Estuarine Ecology: Classification and regions of estuaries: Types and bases for classification. Physical and chemical features of estuarine waters: Salinity, pH, redox-potential. Estuarine circulation, salt wedge, flow volume, flushing time, tidal flow. Estuarine shores; sediment source, types, and transport. Estuarine habitats and communities: Mudflat habitats, channels and floodplain, salt marshes and mangroves. Biological processes and salinity adaptations. Ecological and socio-economic uses of estuaries.Management of estuaries.

Wetland Ecology: Classification and distribution of wetland ecosystems: coastal and inland wetlands. Sources of flow, landscape and catchment basin. Land-water interaction: riparian and hyporheic zones. Ecological and socio-economic uses of wetlands.Management of wetlands.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.        Crane, J.R. and Solomon, A.E. 2010. Estuaries: types, movement patterns and climatical impacts. Nova Science Publishers.

2.        Day, J.W., Hall, C.A.S., Kemp W.M., Yanez-Arancibia A. 1987. Estuarine Ecology. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

3.        Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation. Cambridge University Press.

4.        Mitsch, W.J. and Gosselink, J.G. 2000. Wetlands. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

5.        Siny, V. 1984. Marshes of the Ocean Shore. A & M University Press, Texas.

6.        Zedler, J.B. (Ed.) 2000. Handbook for Restoring Tidal Wetlands. CRS Press, UK.

 

 

AQ 224: Plankton Systematics and Ecology (12 credits)

Objectives: At the end of the course a student should be able to understand plankton systematics, ecology and productivity.

 

Course content: Systematics and biology of phytoplankton and zooplankton (holoplankton and meroplankton). Adaptation to the environment, structural adaptations to floatation, aids of floatation, cyclomorphosis, colour and transparency, bioluminescence. Primary productivity in marine and freshwater systems. Methods of measurement of biomass and primary production, bacterial production, and nitrogen fixation in the water column. Quantitative zooplankton sampling; methods of collecting, fixing and preserving. Analyses of samples. Feeding processes: rate of filtering, prey selection. Spatial and seasonal changes of plankton. Secondary production and the food webs. Bacterial production and the concept of microbial loop. Trophodynamic relationships. Zooplankton variations and the concept of indicator species. Zoogeography of the holoplankton. Vertical migration: seasonal-, ontogenic- and diel vertical migration. Harmful microalgae.

 

Delivery: 30 lectures hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Graham, L.E and Wilcox, L.W. 2000. Algae. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 640 pp.

2.      Johnson, W.S. and Allen, D.M. 2005. Zooplankton of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts: A Guide to New York, LLC, 372 pp. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

3.      Kiorboe, T. 2008. A mechanistic approach to plankton ecology. Princeton University Press, UK.

4.      Linda Karen Medlin, Gregory John Doucette, Maria Celia Villac 2008. Phytoplankton evolution, taxonomy and ecology. J. Cramer. 329pp.

5.      Raymont, J.E.G. 1980. Plankton and Productivity in the Oceans. 2nd Ed., Vol. 1, Phytoplankton. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

6.      Raymont, J.E.G. 1983. Plankton and Productivity in the Oceans, 2nd Ed., Vol. 2, Zooplankton. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

7.      Reynolds, C.S. 2006. Ecology of Phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, UK.

8.      Suthers, I.M. and Rissik, D. 2009. Plankton: A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.

 

AQ 231: Marine Biogeochemistry (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides basic knowledge in chemical properties of seawater, nutrient elements and their biogeochemical cycles in the marine environment.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Describe the chemistry of marine systems.

         Explain factors that govern major biogeochemical processes in the aquatic systems.

         Sample and analyse chemical constituents of marine systems

 

Course content: Chemical properties of seawater (oxygen regimes, pH, Carbon dioxide and the carbonate system, etc.). Nutrient elements and their biogeochemical cycles in the marine environment (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, organic carbon, and sulphur). Nutrient and plankton dynamics. Suspended particles. Geochemistry of minor/trace elements found in seawater. Oxidation-reduction processes. Biogeochemical tracers. Sampling and Analysis of selected water and sediment constituents.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.         Bearman, G. (Editor). 1989. Ocean chemistry and Deep-sea sediments. Pergamon Press, New York.

2.         Bearman, G. (Editor). 1989. Seawater: Its composition, properties and behaviour. Pergamon Press, New York.

3.         Chester, R. 1990. Marine Geochemistry. Unwin Hyman, London.

4.         Grasshoff, K., Ehrhardt M.and Kremling, K. (Editors). 1983. Methods of Seawater Analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.

5.         Libes, S.M. 2009. Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry. 2nd Edition. Wiley Publishers, New York.

6.         Parsons, T., Maita, Y. and Lalli, C. 1984. A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

 

AQ 232: Fish Population Dynamics and Stock Assessment (12 credits)*

Course Description: This course introduces students to factors affecting abundance and distribution of fishes, the methods of estimating fish stocks and the biomass of dynamic models such as the MSY the Yield per recruit as well as the biological reference points.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain factors influencing abundance and distribution of fishes

         Estimate fish population abundance and forecast fishery trends.

 

Course content: Factors influencing abundance and distribution of fishes (growth, recruitment and mortality). The unit stock. Methods of estimating fish abundance: trawl surveys, acoustic surveys, mark-recapture, depletion sampling. Catch and effort assessment. Ground survey sampling theory: random, systematic and stratified sampling. Design of fishery surveys using statistical sampling principles. Fisheries assessment and monitoring. Size relationships. Growth: Growth Relationships. -fish age-and-growth estimation techniques, -backcalculation of length at age; reporting fish growth, models of fish length, weight, and age, comparison of growth rates using linear and nonlinear methods, Recruitment definitions, estimation techniques and confidence intervals, stock-recruitment relationships, influence of environmental factors, stochastic methods, and Mortality estimation: finite and instantaneous rates, -fishing and natural mortality computation, -compensatory versus additive mortality, -estimation techniques and confidence intervals, von Bertalanffy plot, Ford-Walford plot, Beverton and Holt equations, Catch curves: virtual population analysis, surplus yield models (MSY, yield per recruit models). Biomass Dynamic Models: Biological reference points (BRP's), Fitting the models, the intrinsic rate of natural increase, the carrying capacity. Fishery concepts, fishing effort, catch and catch rate, fishing effort, fishing mortality, catchability selectivity.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Cowx, I.G. 1996. Stock Assessment in Inland Fisheries. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

2.      Hart, P.J.B and Reynolds, J.D. 2002. Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. Volume 2. Blackwell Publishing Company.

3.      Hart, P.J.B. and Reynolds, J.D. 2002. Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. Volume 1: Fish Biology. Blackwell Publishing Company.

4.      King, M. 2007. Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management. Second Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

 

 

AQ 233: Physical and Geological Processes in the Oceans (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course introduces students to physical oceanography and marine geology and geological processes.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain physical and geological processes of the oceans.

         Explain the interaction of physical and geological processes with aquatic organisms

         Describe marine deposits of economic importance.

 

Course content: Physical Oceanography: Physical properties of seawater (temperature, salinity, conductivity, density, sound, light, etc.). Ocean water movements: currents, tides, waves, upwelling, their significance to aquatic biota, and their resource potential.

Marine Geology and Geological processes: General features of the oceans: major ocean areas, sea floor dimension. Coastal features:beaches, estuaries, deltas. Paleomagnetism and seismology. Characterization of depositional environments (e.g. Aeolian, fluvial, shallow and deep marine). Marine deposits of economic importance (e.g. sand, gravel, solar salt, manganese nodules, marine minerals and deep sea resources, oil and gas, heavy minerals from beach deposits).

Instrumentation and measurements of physical and geological parameters.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Brownlow, A. H. 1996. Geochemistry. Prentice-Hall, London;

2.      Erickson, J. 2009. Marine Geology: Exploring the New Frontiers of the Ocean. Infobase Publishing.

3.      Talley, L.D., Pickard, G.L., Emery, W.J., and Swift, J.H. 2011. Introduction to Description Oceanography. 6th Edition Elsevier Ltd.

4.      Thurman, H.V. and Trujillo, A.P. and 2004. Introductory Oceanography. Prentice Hall.

 

AQ 234:Mangrove, Seagrass and Seaweed Ecology (12 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides students with knowledge in mangrove ecosystems their ecology and socio-economic importance. It also covers the biota of of seagrass, classification of algae and ecological and economic importance of seaweeds.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Characterize features of mangroves, seagrasses and seaweeds.

         Explain factors governing their spatial and temporal distributions.

         Describe the goods and services they provide

         Explain their threats and management options in place.


Course content: Mangrove Ecosystems: Characterization of mangroves and their adaptations, taxonomy and evolution, physiographic features favouring mangroves, reproductive strategies. Zonation in mangrove forests. The biota of mangrove communities and their ecology. Ecological and socio-economic importance of mangrove ecosystems. Mangroves in Tanzania: species, distribution, utilization, degradation, management and restoration.

Seagrass Ecosystems: Seagrass systematics, habitats, adaptations, zonation and reproduction. The biota of seagrass beds. Ecological and economic importance of seagrasses.

Seaweeds: Classification of algae. Characteristic features, vegetative morphology, life histories. Ecological factors controlling benthic macroalgal growth and distribution. Ecological and economic importance of seaweeds.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Aksornkoae, S. 1993. Ecology and Management of Mangroves. IUCN, Bangkok, Thailand.

2.      Hoeh, C.V., Mann, D.G. and Johns, H.M. 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press.

3.      Hogarth, P. 2007. The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses. Series: Biology of Habitat Series. Oxford University Press.

4.      Lobban, C.S. and Harrison, P.J. 1994. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press.

5.      Philip, S. 1998. Biology of Algae. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill.

6.      Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. (Editors), 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Sciences. No. 34. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

 

 

AQ 235: Coral Reef Ecosystem (8 credits)*

Course Description: The courses provides students with knowledge in biota, distribution and limiting factors, productivity, food webs, nutrient cycling and ecological processes of coral reefs.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Characterize the different types of corals

         Explain factors governing distribution of corals

         Explain ecological and economic importance of coral reefs

         Describe threats and management options of coral reefs.

 

Course content: A survey of the Phylum Cnidaria. Nutrition and symbiosis in corals. Types of reefs and their formation. Distribution and limiting factors. The biota of coral reef ecosystems and their zonation. Productivity, food webs, nutrient cycling, and ecological processes. Ecological and economic importance of coral reefs. Interactions between mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef ecosystems. Natural and human threats. Coral reefs of Tanzania: species, utilization, impacts, management (conservation, restoration and monitoring).

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      McClanahan, T.R., Sheppard, C.R.C. and Obura, D.O. (Editors). 2000. Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their Ecology and Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York.

2.      Richmond, M.E. (Editor). 2011. A Guide to the Seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands. Sida/WIOMSA, 464 pp. Revised Third Edition.

3.      Veron, J.E.N. 1993. Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. University Hawaii Press, USA.

4.      Wells, S. and Hanna, N. 1992. The Greenpeace Book of Coral Reefs. Blanford Cameron Books.

5.      William, S. Jr. (Editor). 2000. Artificial Reef Evaluation with Application to Natural Marine Habitats. CRC Press. N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida. Wood, E. 1983. Corals of the World. TFH Publications.

 

 

 

 

AQ 236: Fish Taxonomy and Biology (12 credits)*

Course Description: This course enables provides students with knowledge in the systematics and biology of fishes. It covers taxonomy, zoogeography, and some basic anatomy and physiology of fishes.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Distinguish different types of fish species.

         Describe the phylogeny, anatomy, physiology and reproductive biology of fishes.

         Describe the behavior of different fishes in their natural environment.

 

Course content: Systematics, genetics, and speciation: Taxonomic methods, Genetic variability, Speciation, Hybridization, Nomenclature. Evolution. The diversity of fishes. Zoogeographical distribution of fishes. Swimming; Buoyancy; Gas exchange, blood, and the circulatory system; Osmoregulation and ion balance; Feeding, nutrition, digestion, and excretion; Reproduction and life histories; Endocrine systems; Sensory systems, and communication; The nervous system; The immune system; Behaviour and communication.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Bone, Q. And Moore, R.H. 2008. Biology of Fishes. Third edition. Taylor and Francis, UK.

2.      Evans, D.H. and Claibourne, J.B. 2006. The physiology of fishes (3rd edition). CRC Press.

3.      Hart, P.J.B. and Reynolds, J.D. 2002. Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. Vol. 1. Willey-Blackwell.

4.      Helfman, G.S., Collette, B.B. and Facey, D.E. 1997. The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts.

5.      Jayaram, K.C. 2008. Fundamentals of Fish Taxonomy. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, India.

6.      Moyle, P.B. and Cech, Jr., J.J. 2004. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. Fifth edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, USA.

7.      Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. 4th Edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey.

 

AQ 237: Fish Ecology (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course will cover aspects of fish ecology from individual, population, community, and ecosystem levels. The role of the environment in determining fish physiology and behaviour, the interactions among fishes and their environment, food-web dynamics, and ecosystem interactions will be discussed.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain how fish interact with its natural habitat.

         Explain bioenergetics and trophic dynamics of fishes

         Explain the impact of humans on fish

 

Course content: Water as an environment. Fish-habitat relationship. Feeding. Growth. Reproduction. Bioenergetics. Movement. Life history strategies. Predation. Competition. Adaptive radiation. Population and trophic dynamics. Fish assemblages. Gradients. Humans and fish: Effects of fishing, Homogenization of fishes, climate change and fishes. Conservation.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and Final examination 60%.

 

References

1.      Diana, J.S. 2004. Biology and Ecology of Fishes. Second edition. Cooper Publishing Group, USA.

2.      Jennings, S., Kaiser, M. J. and Reynolds J. D. 2001. Marine Fisheries Ecology. Nature - Blackwell Science.

3.      Lucas, C.M. and Baras, E., 2002. Migration of Freshwater Fishes. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford.

4.      Walters, C.J. and Martell, S.J.D. 2004. Fisheries Ecology and Management. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

5.      Wootton, R.J. 1991. Fish Ecology. Springer, New York, USA.

 

BL 234: Biostatistics I (12 credits)

Objective: To enable students to understand the scientific method and know how to formulate hypotheses, plan experimental design, summarize and present data in tables and graphs, to describe data in terms of statistical characteristics and to perform the important or basic statistical tests to analyse data.

 

Synopsis: Hypothesis formulation and testing, experimental design, types of data. Descriptive statistics, measures of central tendency, measures of variability, compilation and presentation of data in charts, tables and graphs. Elementary probability, Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Inferential statistics: parametric versus non-parametric methods, transformations and chi-square test, one-sample and two sample t-tests, Mann Whitney U test, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, multiple comparison, contingency tables, simple correlation, Spearman rank correlation and linear regression.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Siegel, S. and Castellan, N.J. 1988. Non-parametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd Edition. Mc Graw-Hill, Tokyo.

2.      Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J. 1995. Biometry. 3rd Edition. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. York.

3.      Zar, J.H. 1996. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs.

 

EV 200: Environmental Science I (8 credits)

Objective: To provide students with basic knowledge on important issues in environmental science as related to all the science subjects, both physical and life sciences.

 

Synopsis: Principles of Ecology: Biology and chemical ecology, the inter relationship of living and non-living things, environmental effects on food chains, food webs, energy transfer in the ecosystem. Introduction to the conservation of biological diversity: Environmental processes, soil erosion, water, mineral and biological resources. Earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, drought, mapping and prediction of natural hazards. Environmental Energy Resources: Fossil fuel and nuclear energy, Man's impact on the earth energy balance. Energy resource management. Environmental pollution and degradation: Sources, effect and type of air, water and soil pollution. Environmental toxicology, impact of human activities in health and the environment. Monitoring of pollutants, including microorganisms. Environmental conservation and Management: Environmental impact Assessment (EIA). Public education and awareness, legislation (local and international), natural reserves, National parks, Institutions involved in environmental protection and enforcement. Environmental modelling.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Cilpin, A. 1995. EIA cutting edge for the 21st century. Cambridge University Press.

2.      Danny, H.L.D. 2000. Climate and global environmental change. Pearson Education Ltd. Essex, UK.

3.      Enger, E.D. and Smith, B.F. 2000. Environmental science: a study of interrelationships. McGraw-Hill, Boston.

 

 

AQ 239: Biology and Ecology of Shellfish (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course introduces students to the commercially important mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and other fished invertebrates.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes:At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain the biology of shellfish

         Explain the ecology of shellfish

         Describe the economic importance of shellfish.

 

Course content: An overview of commercially important mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and other harvested invertebrates: systematics, biodiversity, habitats, reproductive strategies, feeding, and growth. Examples of species that demonstrate variability in recruitment and complex life cycles. Ecological, social and economic importance.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Gosling, E. 2002. Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology and Culture. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

2.      Khanna D. R.and Yadav, P R 2005. Biology of Echinodermata. New Delhi : Discovery Pub. House.

3.      Ruppert, E.E. and Barnes, R.D. 1994. Invertebrate Zoology. Harcourt Publ. Forth Worth.

 

GY 245: Remote Sensing and GIS I (12 credits)

Objectives: To use aerial photography and other remotely sensed data inputs into a geographic information system. To process, interpret, and analyze satellite imagery, aerial photography and raster based GIS data for geographical mapping.

 

Synopsis: Remote sensing concepts and theory, Aerial photography, Aerial photo interpretation and photogrammetry, Earth orbiting satellites. Multsepetral and hypersepectral data. Image rectification, registration and enhancement. Image classification accuracy assessment. Remote sensing with radar.

 

Delivery: 15 lectures hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Bonham-Carter. 1997. Geographical information systems for geoscientists.

2.      Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W., 1994. Remote sensing and image interpretation. 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York, NY.

3.      Schott, J.R. 1997. Remote Sensing: The image chain approach. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

4.      Software: ERDAS image professional 8.3 or ENVI 3.0 or ILWIS.

 

 

SC 215: Scientific Methods (8 credits)

Objectives: To provide knowledge on how to design and write scientific research proposals, conduct proper scientific research, analyse and interpret data and write scientific reports

 

Synopsis: Developing clear questions and hypotheses based on scientific concepts and observations. Designing and conducting scientific investigations, answer questions and verify hypothesis, techniques, practices and resource that can generate accurate data, organizing data in scientific acceptable displays, scientific data and concepts presentations (through oral and written exercises), writing scientific research proposals and reports, developing skills in reading and interpreting scientific literature by answering critical thinking scientific questions.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of tutorials.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Kothari, C.R. 1997. Research Methodology. Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition. Wishwa Prakashan Publishers.

2.      Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J. 1993. Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Chapman and Hall, New York.

3.      Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, J.F. 1995. Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in Biological research. 3rd Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York.

4.      Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall International Inc.

 

 

 

 

THIRD YEAR

 

AQ 300: Practical Training II (12 credits)

Objective: At the end of the course a student should be able to demonstrate hands-on skills in field and laboratory techniques used in studying aquatic sciences.

 

Synopsis: Field and laboratory techniques and practicals in benthic ecology, plankton ecology, aquatic plants, oceanography, limnology, fisheries, coral reefs, aquaculture, marine mammals and reptiles, aquatic pollution, fisheries and aquaculture extension, fish processing, socio-economic.

 

Delivery: 8 weeks of intensive field excursions and laboratory work.

Assessment: Final assessment will be based on employer's evaluation (10%), logbook (20%), final report (60%) and student presentation (10%).

 

AQ 307: Law of the Sea and Inland Waters (8 credits)

Objectives: At the end of the course a student should be able to understand legal aspects with respect to access, use and management of aquatic resources.

 

Synopsis: Historical background on the law of the sea. Maritime boundary delimitation and maritime issues: territorial sea and international straits; high seas and archipelagic states; the marine environment; marine laws governing scientific research and the transfer of marine technology; the continental shelf and seabed; the exclusive economic zone; conservation and management of marine resources in the EEZ and the high seas; settlement of disputes. Laws governing aquatic mineral resources. Impact of the 1982 UNCLOS with particular reference to Tanzania; control of marine resources, marine protected areas, marine pollution control. Legal regime for the inland waters (rivers, lakes, swamps); regional cooperation in utilization of transboundary freshwater resources (Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa). Legal status of landlocked countries on access to marine resources.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Anand, R.P. 1982. Origin and Development of the Law of the Sea. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, London.

2.      Brown, E.D. 1994. The International Law of the Sea. Bartmouth Publishing Co., Brookfield.

3.      Dahmani, M. 1987. The Fisheries Regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Lancaster.

4.      Mapunda, B.T. The Law of the Sea in Tanzania: An Assessment of the Implementation of the 1982 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. PhD Thesis University of Gent. (Mimeo).

5.      Mary Theophil, "Conservation of Marine Environment in Tanzania: Law and Practice," Thesis, Faculty of Law Library, (Class mark - RES. K3486.T 48).

6.      Mosha, S.H. "The Law and Environment in Tanzania: Case Study of Industrial Waste Pollution onto the Marine Environment in Dar-es-Salaam", Faculty of Law/Botany (Class mark - RES. K3581.415 M. 67).

 

 

AQ 320: Watershed Management (8 credits)

Expected Learning outcome: At the end of the course a student should be able to understand principles of watershed management.

 

Synopsis

Concepts of watershed management. Characterizations of stream and river ecosystems from a watershed perspective. Delimiting watershed as a management unit: International, national, local levels. The interdisciplinary approach: importance of holistic approach to natural resource management. Interaction between geological, physical, chemical, biological factors in watershed management: Bedrock geology, climate, sources of pollutants and pollutant transport, stream hydraulics and discharge, Stakeholder analysis: Public participation, socio-economic, conflicts and political issues. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Case studies and emerging issues in local, national and international watershed management.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Heathcothe, I.W. 1998. Integrated Watershed Management: Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, USA.

2.      Naiman, R.J. (Editor). 1994. Watershed Management. 2nd Edition. Springer Verlag, New York.

3.      Naiman, R.J. and Bilby, R.E. (eds.). 1998. River Ecology and Management. Springer-Verlag, New York.

4.      Novotny, V. and Olem, H. 2002. Water Quality: Diffuse pollution and watershed management. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons.

5.      Sadar, M.H. 1996. Environmental Impact Assessment, 2nd Edition. Francophone secretariat, International Association for Impact Assessment.

 

AQ 339: Aquaculture Production Systems (12 credits)

Course description: The course provides students with skills in various aquaculture system designs and production techniques.

 

Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course, the student should be able to:

         identify types of facilities used for aquaculture production;

         identify the types of materials used in construction of various aquaculture production units/systems;

         design, construct and carry out maintenance of aquaculture production units/systems; compare production efficiency of different aquaculture production units/systems.

 

Course contents:

Review of major inland and marine aquaculture systems. Site selection, design, construction and maintenance of production units: ponds, cages, pens, raceways, rafts, long lines and re-circulation systems. Production methods of finfish, shellfish and seaweeds. Use of waste water for fish culture. Culture technology of selected commercially important marine and freshwater fin and shellfish species. Production planning and marketing. Harvesting, handling and transportation of live aquaculture products. A study of safety; use of hand and power tools; identification of fittings, valves, pipes, and sizes; maintenance and fabrication of piping systems; operation, installation, troubleshooting, and minor repairs of electric motors; basic operation of gasoline and diesel engines; basic carpentry; and fiberglass repair.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

 

Assessment: Essays and tests 15%; mid-semester examination 25%; and final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Lucas, J.S. and Southgate, P.C. 2003. Aquaculture. Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Blackwell Science Ltd. 502 pp.

2.      Pillay T.V.R. 1993. Aquaculture: Principles and Practices. Fishing News Books (Blackwell Science Ltd). 600 pp.

3.      Cowx, I.G. 1992. Aquaculture Development in Africa. Training and Reference Manual for Aquaculture Extensionists. Commonwealth Secretariat, London. 423 pp.

4.      Blakely, D.R. 1990. Inland Aquaculture Development Handbook. Fishing News Books (Blackwell Science Ltd). 192 pp.

5.      Little, D. and Muir, J. 1987. A Guide to Integrated Warm Water Aquaculture. Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling, Scotland. 238 pp.

 

AQ 340:Genetics, Breeding and Seed Production(12 credits)*

Course Description: The course provides students with basic knowledge in basic aquaculture genetics and production of quality fish feeds.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes:At the end of the course, a student should be able to:

         Explain the basic aquaculture genetics

         Apply aquaculture genetics in the production of quality fish seeds.

 

Course content: Basic genetics: gene action; qualitative traits; phenotypic variation. Domestication and strain evaluation. Selection: Selective breeding; correlated responses to selection and indirect selection. Inbreeding and maintenance of genetic quality. Crossbreeding and hybridization: Intraspecific crossbreeding; interspecific hybridization. Chromosomal techniques: Gynogenesis, androgenesis, and cloning; polyploidy; sex reversal and breeding. Molecular and genomic techniques: Gene transfer/genetic engineering; genomics and QTL mapping; marker assisted selection; combining genetic enhancement programmes; genotype-environment interactions; xenogenesis.

Seed production. Hatchery production procedures: Broodstock management establishing the broodstock, egg production; production of live feeds mass culture of microalgae, mass culture of rotifers, production of the brine shrimp Artemia; spawning methods for cultured species natural, induced; fish egg management egg harvest, incubation of eggs, hatching; larval rearing layout of the larval rearing system, preparing the larval rearing system, environmental parameters for larval rearing, feeding fish post-larvae, feeding protocol, daily distribution of live feed, daily storage of live feed, hygiene in the larval rearing environment, monitoring and controls; weaning the rearing system, preparation of the weaning unit, fry culture, feeding, management of the weaning section, control of environmental and biological parameters; fry transport transport equipment, water quality, stocking density for transport, fry handling, fry counting; stocking rates, when to stock; how to stock.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Essays and tests 15%; mid-semester examination 25%; and final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Beaumont, A.R, Boudry, P. and Hoare, K. 2010. Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2nd Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

2.      Bromage, N. and Roberts, R.J. 1999. Broodstock Management and Egg and Larval Quality. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

3.      De Silva, S.S. and Anderson, T.A. 1998. Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Chapman & Hall. London.

4.      Halver, J.F. 1989. Fish Nutrition. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, San Diego.

5.      Haylor, G. and Muir, J.F. 1998. A Fish Hatchery Manual for Africa. A practical manual for producing seedstock of tilapia, carp and catfish. Pisces Press Ltd., Stirling, Scotland.

6.      Lucas, J.S. and Southgate, P.C. (Editors) 2012. Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Second edition. Wiley-Blackwell, UK.

 

 

AQ 341: Fish Nutrition and Feed Production (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides students with knowledge in formulating fish feeds.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes:At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Identify fish feed requirements,

         Formulate and produce fish feeds.

 

Course content: Food and feeding: Concepts of feeding. Types of feeds (natural and artificial feeds). Metabolism (Digestion, absorption, assimilation, excretion). Nutritional requirements: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Conversion rates. Nutrient deficiencies. Feeding regimes. Feed formulation and techniques: Feed formulation. Feed analysis. Manufacturing techniques for different types of feeds: dry, wet, semi-moist, frozen, extruded, pelleted and microencapsulated. Preservation and storage: Feed preservation, transportation and storage.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      De Silva, S.S. and Anderson, T.A. 1998. Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Chapman & Hall. London.

2.      Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W. 2002. Fish Nutrition, (3rd edition). Academic Press, New York.

  1. Hertrampf, J.W. and Piedad-Pascual, F. 2000. Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
  2. Lim, C. and Webster, C. 2002. Nutrient Requirements and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture. CAB International Publishers, U.K.

 

 

AQ 342: Fisheries Resource Management (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides knowledge to students on the rationale and how to manage fisheries resources

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain the rationale for fisheries management.

         Describe different fisheries management mechanisms.

         Explain the underlying principles and strategies for fisheries management.

Course content: Rationale for management and conservation. Basic principles and factors influencing the formulation and implementation of fisheries management strategies. A review of fisheries management past, present and future perspectives (Conventional and non-conventional methods: cultural norms and values, ecosystem based management, Marine protected areas, Integrated coastal zone management, EEZ, Ecotourism etc). Sustainable harvesting and conservation techniques for regulating fisheries activities: Licensing, gear regulation, closed season, closed area. Management of transboundary species. Fisheries management in Tanzania. Management of other marine and freshwater resources (crustaceans, echinoderms, molluscs, mammals, amphibians and reptiles).

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References

1.      Charles, A. 2001. Sustainable Fishery Systems. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

2.      Cowx, I.G. 1997. Stocking and Introductions of Fish in Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems. Fishing

3.      Crean, K. and Synes, D. 1996. Fisheries Management in Crisis. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

4.      King, M. 2007. Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management. Second Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

5.      Royce, W.F. 1996. Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science. Academic Press, New York.

6.      Templeton, R.G. 1995. Freshwater Fisheries Management. Second Edition. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

 

 

AQ 343: Fish Processing Technology (12 credits)*

Course Description: This course introduces students to physical and chemical properties of fish tissues, methods of fish preservation, quality control and how to apply the quality standards.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Determine the quality of fish and fish products

         Apply standards of fish quality control.

 

Course content: Physical and chemical properties of fish tissue. Post-mortem changes in fish- autolytic, microbial and entomological. Methods of fish preservation and processing (smoking, freezing, chilling, salting, pickling, fermentation and canning). Preparation of secondary fish products (pastes, protein concentrates, ensilage, caviar, pate, chitin, chitosan and oils). Quality control of finfish, shellfish and their products: evaluation of quality and freshness, sanitation and hygiene. International standards: HACCP and ISO 9000. Tanzania standards, food laws: statutory and non-statutory, food processing laws and marketing commodity standards. Fish processing plant location: layout, waste disposal.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; and final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Codex Alimentarius Commission 1995. General Principles of Food Hygiene. Rome.

2.      Connell, J.J. 1995. Control of Fish Quality. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

3.      Follows, P.J. 2000. Food Processing Technology. Principles and Practices. 2nd Edition, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge England.

4.      Gopakumar, K. 2006. Textbook of Fish Processing Technology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

5.      Kanduri, L. and Eckhardt R.A. 2002. Food Safety in Shrimp Processing. A Handbook for Shrimp Processors, Importers, Exporters and Retailers. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

6.      Sprenger and Richard, A. 1998. Hygiene for Management. 8th Edition, A text for food hygiene course. Highfield Publication. Doncaster, UK.

 

AQ 344: Fisheries Extension Education (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides students with skills of extension service in aquaculture practices.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain objectives and principles of fisheries and aquaculture extension.

         Describe different ways used in extension.

         Select, design, produce, use and evaluate communication media in fisheries.

 

Course content: Objectives and principles of fisheries and aquaculture extension. Aquaculture extension services in national development. Extension and the aquaculture technology transfer systems: diffusion and management of innovations. Identification of target individual/group, opinion leaders and public sensitization. Problem identification and strategy formulation. Teaching-learning process in aquaculture extension: selection and use of fisheries extension methods. Design, production, selection, use and evaluation of the communication media in fisheries extension. Gender aspects, government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and community based organizations (CBOs) in fisheries and aquaculture extension.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Cowx, I.G. 1992. Aquaculture Development in Africa. Training and Reference Manual for Aquaculture Extensionists. Commonwealth Secretariat, London.

2.      FAO 2004. Aquaculture extension in Sub-Saharan Africa. FI/FIRA.

3.      Townsley, P. 1996. Rapid Rural Appraisal, Participatory Rural Appraisal and Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 358.

 

AQ 345: Diseases in Fish (8 credits)*

Course Description: This courses introduces students to different fish diseases their causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention.

 

Expected Learning outcome: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Identify different disease causing microorganisms.

         Identify different diseases of fish.

         Explain control mechanisms of disease vectors.

 

Course content: Disease causing microorganisms: ectoparasites, endoparasites, fish fungi, bacterial infections. Fish diseases, diagnosis, clinical signs and treatment, prevention. Stress and immune system. Diseases in prawn farming: idiopathic muscle necrosis, bacterial necrosis, narval mid cycle disease, luminescence disease, Exuvia Entrapment Disease (EED), diseases caused by protozoa and viruses, common diseases in grow-out ponds. Fish culture and public health concerns: public heath and fish consumption, effects of bioaccumulation, aquatic vectors of human diseases, epidemiological issues, life cycles of major fish parasites and control of aquatic vectors.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Andrews, C., Exell, A. and Carrington, N. (2003). Manual of Fish Health. Interpet Ltd.

2.      Noga, E.J. 2010. Fish Diseases: Diagnosis and treatment. 2nd Ed. Willey-Blackwell.

3.      Paperna, I. 1996. Parasites, infections and diseases of fish in Africa-An update. CIFA Technical paper No. 31, Rome, FAO.

4.      Roberts, R.J., (2001). Fish Pathology. 3rd Edition. Elsevier Limited.

5.      Williams, H. and A. Jones. 1994. Parasitic Worms of Fish. Taylor and Francis, UK

6.      Woo, P.T.K. (Editor). 1995. Fish Diseases and Disorders. Vol. 1, Protozoa and Metazoan Infections. CABI Publishing, UK.

 

AQ 346: Fisheries Economics (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course introduces students to bioeconomic principles. It focuses on role of fisheries resources in the economy as well as how to use economic tools to manage fisheries resources.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain bioeconomic principles.

         Describe their practical use in fisheries.

 

Course content: Role of fisheries resources in the economy. Fisheries as a renewable resource. Concept of resource rent in fisheries. Gordon-Schaefer model (sustainable total revenue curve, total cost curve, and population equilibrium curve), bionomic theory (Maximum Economic Yield (MEY), Optimal Sustainable Yield (OSY), and Open Access). Economic management tools: Property rights, input and output regulations(use of taxes, transferable quotas, technical measures). Ecolabelling. Marketing system: Analysis of fish market structures, their conduct and performance. Role of co-operatives in fish marketing.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practicals.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Anderson, L.2004. The economics of fisheries management. Revised and enlarged edition. The Blackburn Press.

2.      Flaaten, O. 2007. Lecture notes on Fisheries Economics and Management. University of Tromso.

3.      Hannesson, R. 1993. Bioeconomic Analysis of Fisheries. Fishing News Books. Blackwell Science Ltd.

4.      Kerr, J.M., Dinesh K. M., Katar, S., Ramasamy, C and William, R. B. 1997. Natural Resource Economics: Theory and Applications in India. Oxford & U3H, New Delhi.

5.      Neher, P.A. 1990. Natural Resources Economics: Conservation and Exploitation. Cambridge University Press.

6.      Seijo J.C., Defeo, O., Salas, S.1998. Fisheries bio-economics Theory, modelling and management. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 368.

 

AQ 347: Aquabusiness (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course provides students with knowledge in business skills. It enables students to apply this knowledge in aquatic environment.

 

Expected Learning outcome: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain basic business principles.

         Apply business principles in fishery products.

 

Course content: The role of business plan, opportunity analysis and selection of aquaculture business ideas. Developing aquaculture business ideas into business plans. Defining business vision, mission and objectives. Business cycle: business implementation and management. Aquaculture market research and analysis. Operations analysis. Organizational and management plan and analysis Business management and administration. Procurement process as a control aspect of the post-investment phase. Operations plan. Key marketing decision areas: marketing information system, marketing research, marketing segmentation, targeting and positioning, pricing, distribution, product management, and customer care. Challenges in understanding and serving the market. Competitor analysis and competitive marketing strategies. Financial plan Criteria and tools for project decision making; Payback period; Internal rate of return; Cost Benefit Analysis, Net present value. Sources of finance. Calculation of financial and economic profitability, examination of risk. Case studies of selected fisheries projects.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 Seminar hours

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Anderson, J.L. 2003. The International Seafood Trade. CRC Press, England.

2.      Block, S.B. and Hirt, G.A. 1997. Foundations of Financial Management. 8th ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.      Engle, C.R. and Quagrainie, K. 2005. The Aquaculture Marketing Handbook. Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa.

4.      Jaffry, S., Pickering, J.H., Ghulam, Y., Whitmarsh, D. and Wattage, P. 2004. Consumer choices for quality and sustainability labeled seafood products in the UK. Food Policy, 29(3): 215-228.

5.      Josling, T., Roberts, D. and Orden, D. (2004). Food regulation and trade: towards a safe and open global system. Institute for International Economies, Washington, D.C.

 

 

AQ 348: Aquatic Pollution and Control (8 credits)*

Course Description: This course introduces students to water quality monitoring criteria. It also enables them to understand pollution and prevention mechanisms.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Describe types and major sources of pollutants in aquatic environment.

         Explain the ecological and environmental impacts of pollutants in the aquatic environment.

         Apply acquired knowledge to control and prevent pollution in aquatic systems.

 

Course content: Water quality monitoring and assessment (guidelines, criteria, standards and indices). A survey of types and sources of pollutants/pollution in aquatic environment: oxygen demanding wastes, solid wastes including plastics, hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, pesticides, microbes, heavy metals, radioactivity, heat, sound. Transport and fate of pollutants in aquatic environment. Methods of analyses. Pollution control and prevention: use of aquatic plants, hydroponics and conventional wastewater management technologies. Aquatic ecotoxicology.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of Practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Abel, P.D. 2002. Water pollution Biology. Taylor & Francis. USA.

2.      Allay, E.R. 2007. Water Quality Control Handbook. McGraw Hill, USA.

3.      Alloway, B.J. and Ayres, D.C. 1997. Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution. Blackie Academic and Professional, London.

4.      Boyd, C.E. 2000. Water Quality: An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

5.      Li, Y. and Migliaccio, K. (Editors) 2011. Water quality, Concepts, sampling and Analysis. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis.New York.

6.      Perry, J. and Venderklein, E. 1998. Water quality: Management of a natural resource. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

7.      Tebbutt, T.H.Y. 1998. Principal of water quality Control. Elsevier Sciences. London.

 

 

 

 

AQ 349 Advanced Oceanography (12 credits)*

Course description: To advance the knowledge of students on chemical equilibriums in marine systems and introduce to the students theoretical and practical aspects including techniques and instruments in geological oceanography.

 

Expected Learning Outcomes: At the end of the course a student should be able to:

         Explain the principles underlying gaseous equilibrium and exchange with the atmosphere.

         Describe mechanisms governing water circulations and sedimentation.

         Describe physiography of the oceans.

 

Course content: Chemical Oceanography: Gaseous equilibrium and exchange with atmosphere. Chemistry of the oceans: seawater as a complex electrolyte solution; the nature and rates of chemical reactions occurring in seawater and between the oceans and the biosphere and lithosphere. Thermodynamics of chemical reactions in seawater at atmospheric and at high pressures.

Physical Oceanography: Circulation and water masses of the oceans: mechanisms, circulation and water masses. Coastal oceanography: coastal upwelling, Ekman circulation in shallow water, fronts, plumes, tides, currents; estuarine circulation and sedimentation; topography and circulation in lagoons; beach erosion and sedimentation; effects of human activities on the coastal zone.

Geological oceanography. Physiography of the oceans: continental margins and their types; continental shelf, shorelines, estuaries, fjords, sea level changes, deltas, lagoon; continental slope, submarine canyons; continental rise; deep ocean floor, abyssal hills, mid-oceanic ridges, fracture zones. Marginal seas. Sediment transport and distribution: continental margin, deep ocean. Seafloor evolution: continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, chronology of seafloor evolution.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.                  Anderson, R.N. 1988. Marine Geology: a planet earth perspective. Wiley and Sons, Inc.

2.                  Bearman, G. (ed.) 1989. Ocean chemistry and Deep-sea sediments. Pergamon Press, New York.

3.                  Brown, E. and Colling, A. 2004. Ocean Circulation. Published jointly by Walton Hall, Milton Keynes and Butterworth-Heinenann.

4.                  Chester, R. 1990. Marine Geochemistry. Unwin Hyman, London.

5.                  Cushman-Roisin, B. and Beckers, J.M. 2011. Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, 2nd Edition, Physical and Numerical Aspects. Academic Press.

6.                  Knauss, J.A. 2005. Introduction to Physical Oceanography. Waveland Press Inc.

7.                  Pugh, D. 2004. Changing Sea Levels. Effects of Tides, Weather and Climate. Cambridge University Press.

8.                  Talley, L.D., Pickard, G.L., Emery, W.J. and Swift, J.H. 2011. Descriptive Physical Oceanography. 6th Edition. Elsevier Ltd, Oxyford.

 

 

AQ 331: Contemporary Topics in Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries (8 credits)

Objectives: At the end of the course a student should be aware of current issues and trends in aquatic sciences and fisheries.

 

Course content: Analysis of contemporary issues in aquatic environmental conservation and fisheries: e.g. biological diversity, climate change and evaluation, restoration ecology, aquatic resources use politics, conflicts and conflict resolution.

 

Delivery: 15 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework assessment 40%; Final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Montgomery, D.R., Grant, G.E. and Sullivan, K. 1995. Watershed Analysis as a Framework for Implementing Ecosystem Management. Water Resources Bulletin 31 (3): 369-386.

2.      Naiman, R.J. and Bilby, R.E. (eds.). 1998. River Ecology and Management. Springer-Verlag, New York.

3.      Sadar, M.H. 1996. Environmental Impact Assessment, 2nd Edition. Francophone secretariat, International Association for Impact Assessment.

 

AQ 399: Research Project (8 credits)

Objective: At the end of the course a student should be able to prepare, conduct and write a scientific report.

Synopsis: Research project preparation: title selection, develop clear research question/s, proposal development and presentation. Data collection. Data analysis (application of descriptive and inferential statistics), prove or disapprove hypothesis. Presentation of research findings. Project report writing.

 

Delivery: A laboratory or field study on a problem in a selected field of aquatic science leading to the production of a scientific report.

Assessment: Coursework 40% (proposal preparation 20%; presentation of research findings 20%); Final report 60%.

 

References:

1.      Bailey, N.T. 1981. Statistical Methods in Biology. 2nd Edition. Edwarld Arnold, London.

2.      Kothari, C.R. 1997. Research Methodology. Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition. Wishwa Prakashan Publishers.

3.      Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J.. 1993. Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Chapman and Hall, New York. 445 pp.

4.      Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, J.F. 1995. Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in Biological research. 3rd Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York. 887 pp.

5.      Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall International Inc. 718 pp.

 

 

 

 

MC 209: Aquatic Microbiology (12 credits)

Expected learning outcomes:

At the end of the course a student will be able to:

         Explain the diversity of microorganisms in aquatic ecosystems

         Describe the role played by microorganisms in aquatic environments

         Describe the role of microorganisms in water quality and purification

 

Course content: Diverse Aquatic habitats for microorganisms. Microbial community of marine and freshwater environments. Important microorganisms in aquatic ecosystems: photoautotrophs; photoheterotrophs; chemoheterotrophs; chemolithoautotrophs. Biological nutrient removal by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria; nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. Economic importance of aquatic microorganism. Water pollution and microorganism; Water based diseases. The emergence of a new range of waterborne pathogens such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Small Round Viruses. Role of microorganism in water quality, Portable water. Methods for Collection and analysis of water purity. Ground water microbiology.

 

Delivery: 30 lecture hours and 45 hours of practical.

Assessment: course work 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Prescott, L.M., J.P. Harley and D.A. Klein. 1999. Microbiology, 4th Edition., W.C. Brown, McGraw-Hill, New York and Boston.

2.      Mardigan, M.T., J.M. Martinko and J. Parker. 2000. Brock Biology of Microorganisms 9th edition. Prentice Hill International, Inc.

3.      Austin, B. 1988. Marine microbiology. Cambridge University Press.

4.      Austin, B. 1988. Methods in Aquatic Bacteriology. Anchor Brendon Ltd

BL 313: Biological Impact Assessment (8 credits)

Objectives:An introduction to the ecological impact assessment, with special reference to the biological impacts of a variety of development activities, and the possible means by which these might be avoided and/or mitigated. Students will gain exposure to a wide variety if case histories of biological impacts caused by development projects real-world examples from both within and outside the East African region.

 

Synopsis: This course is designed to serve as an introduction to the biological impact assessment of development projects. Topics to be covered include: the historical background to impact assessment; biological impact assessment in East Africa; biological impact assessment as one of the components of the environmental impact assessment process. Problems often associated with biological impact assessment, and current examples from the African regions and elsewhere.

 

Delivery: 15 lectures hours and 45 hours of practical classes.

Assessment: Coursework 40%, final examination 60%.

 

References:

1.      Gilpin, A. 1995. EIA Cutting Edge for the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

2.      Hambrey, J., M. Phillips, M.A.K., Chowdhury and R.B. Shivappa 2000. Guidelines for the Environmental Assessment of Coastal Aquaculture Development. SEACAM, Maputo, Mozambique.

3.      Hutton, S. and Dickson, B. 2000. CITES - Endangered Species Threatened Convention Earthscan, London.

4.      Wathern, P. (Ed.) 1988. Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice. Routledge, London and New York.

5.      Wiesner, D. 1995. EIA: The Environmental Impact Assessment Process: What it is and What it Means to You. Prism Press, Ltd., USA.

6.      Wood, C. 1995. Environmental Impact Assessment. A Comparative Review. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York.

 


 

Appendix 2: List of academic staff and their areas of specialization

 

S/N

Name and Rank

Sex

Qualification

Area(s) of Expertise

1.

Prof. Y.D. Mgaya

Professor

M

PhD

Aquaculture and Fisheries

2.

Prof. J. F. Machiwa

Professor

M

PhD

Environmental Biogeochemistry

3.

Prof. P.O.J. Bwathondi

Assistant Professor

M

PhD

Fisheries and Aquaculture

4.

Dr. C. Lugomela

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Plankton Ecology

5.

Dr. R. A. Tamatamah

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Aquaculture and Watershed Management

6.

Dr. S.G.M. Ndaro

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Benthic Ecology

7.

Dr. J. Francis

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Physical Oceanography

8.

Dr. M.A.K. Ngoile

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Fisheries Biology and Management

9.

Dr. B. R. Lugendo

Lecturer

F

PhD

Marine and Fish Ecology

10.

Dr. B. L. Benno

Lecturer

M

PhD

Fisheries Biology and Management

11.

Dr. C. Mwita

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Fish Parasitology

12.

Dr. D. Shilla

Senior Lecturer

M

PhD

Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology

13.

Dr. P. Mfilinge

Lecturer

M

PhD

Limnology and Estuarine Ecology

14.

Dr. I. S. Semesi

Lecturer

F

PhD

Mangrove and Coral Reef Ecology

15.

Dr. P. Onyango

Lecturer

M

PhD

Fisheries Social Science

16.

Dr. L.T. Kaaya

Lecturer

F

M.Sc.

Ecohydrology & Limnology

17.

Mr. S.Z. Pamba

Assistant Lecturer

M

M.Sc.

Physical Oceanography

18.

Ms. A. Hamduni

Assistant Lecturer

F

M.Sc.

Chemical Oceanography

19.

Mr. T.M. Kithakeni

Assistant Lecturer

M

M.Sc.

Marine Biology

20.

Mr. S.M. Limbu

Assistant Lecturer

M

M.Sc.

Aquaculture

 

 


 

Appendix 3: List of technical staff and their qualifications

 

S/N

Name

Sex

Qualification

Current Position

1.

Dr. A. Kamukuru

M

PhD

Chief Laboratory Scientist

2.

Mr. A. Lugata

M

B.Sc.

Chief Technician

3.

Mr. S. Ulomi

M

M.Sc.

Principal Laboratory Scientist II

4.

Mr. Y. P. Mhonda

M

B.Sc.

Senior Laboratory Scientist I

5.

Mr. M. Loth

M

M.Sc.

Principal Laboratory Scientist I

6.

Ms. L. Gaspare

F

M.Sc.

Laboratory Scientist II

7.

Mr. P. M. Samani

M

M.Sc.

Laboratory Scientist II

8.

Mr. P. Semili

M

M.Sc.

Senior Laboratory Scientist III

9.

Mr. H. Ramadhani

M

Certificate (Marine Engineering)

Ordinary Seaman III

10.

Mr. R. H. Katonga

M

Diploma (Marine Engineering)

Laboratory Technician II

 

 

 

Aquatic